Common currency divides West African nations

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For many West African countries, introducing the eco is tempting. But the political will to do so is not enough — many questions need answers before a new single currency becomes a reality.

In the Nigerian capital of Abuja, heads of state from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) on Saturday confirmed their intent to create a common currency called the eco.

New ECOWAS head and Niger’s president, Mahamadou Issoufou, stressed the importance of sticking to the roadmap to introduce the new currency, but there is still a significant amount of work to do if people are going to be spending ecos in 2020 as planned.

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The proposed new common currency appears to have found the most support among Francophone countries where the CFA is in circulation. There have been many protests in Senegal and Benin against the CFA franc, which is pegged to the euro.

CFA critics, especially in Togo, see the new West African currency as a way to break free of financial dependence on former colonial power France.

Yves Ekoue Amaizo, the director of the Afrocentricity think tank, said the Togolese government’s official position is “neither for nor against” the proposed currency. But former minister Kako Nubukpo was vocal in his criticism of the CFA.

Common currency divides West African nations
Credit: DW
Common currency divides West African nations
Credit: DW

No loss when exchanging currencies

In Mali, Etienne Fakaba, an economist and the director of the Center for Political, Economic and Social Research, is also a proponent of the eco. He said there are benefits in broadening the ECOWAS market.

A single currency, he said, would lead to savings across the board when it comes to exchange rates and promote unity.

“Ultimately, we will grow together into a stronger entity, including on the economic level,” Fakaba said.

The economist added that a political plan will be required to make the eco a stable currency. “That way the sphere of influence can be extended,” he said.

There is far less enthusiasm for the new currency in Nigeria — the most populated country in West Africa with around 200 million people. Even in the week before the summit, the subject was not one of public debate.

“Nigerians don’t discuss it. Occasionally you hear it being mentioned among elites,” said Eze Onyekpere, head of the Centre for Social Justice in Abuja.

He said he is skeptical about the single currency actually becoming a reality in the foreseeable future, “Even to this day, you get the sense that we want to hold onto our naira, cedi, and CFA.”

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